13 20 10 Classroom Design
- For General Purpose Classroom and departmentally or college controlled classroom components and requirements refer to CLASSROOM & TECHNOLOGY DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS.
- Both General Purpose Classrooms and department or college-controlled classrooms may have additional modifications or extras that exceed the minimum requirements.
13 20 15 Bookstore Design
- The following standards and guidelines shall apply to all new or renovated facilities constructed for Penn State Bookstores.
- The right side of the facility, as one enters, should be considered to be the prime selling or retail area.
- In no way should the following points of concern be restrictive to the design of the building. As with any project, points of concern, or the function, must have priority over the form. In attempting to acknowledge the responsibilities of the Penn State Stores and their ability to operate efficiently, effectively and professionally, these standards have been used and they have proven to be worthy guidelines.
.02 Common Areas
- Walls, partitions, mechanical space, utility rooms, and/or bathrooms should represent approximately fourteen percent (14%) of the overall area.
.03 Storage and Office Area
- Should represent approximately nineteen percent (19%) of the overall area.
- All windows should be at least 42" off the floor.
- Should be used as minimally as possible. When used, "I" beams would be preferred whereby electrical and other lines might be run within the column flanges. Also, when used, a 24 foot grid or span would be preferred.
- Generally, all floors will be poured at ground level and loading should be designed for 125 to 150 psf live load. Should there be any second level floors poured, they should be designed for 150 psf live load.
- The manager's office area is usually raised 8" above the main floor. The partition between this office area and the main store area should have windows 34" above the floor of the office and 42" above the main floor.
.07 Floor Coverings
- There are three specific areas of various floor coverings:
- Generally, quarry tile is to be used in the foyers or entry areas. It is to be slip-resistant tile with abrasive material embedded in the surface, 1/2" thick, and similar or equal to American Olean Tile Company's "grey/pearl." It should comply with ANSI A137.1 American Standard specifications.
- The second type of area would use Duravinyl Tiles. These areas would include traffic, check-out and textbook area. It is to be A2 Rock #DN19 by the American Tile Company, or equal.
- Carpet is to be equal to Shaw Industries, Inc./Philadelphia Carpet "Presentation 28"--ultra dense level Commercial Grade Class B. There are special "spec" sheets for this carpet available upon request.
- Throughout, where display fixtures will not be against the walls, black vinyl cove base (6") will be used. This base should be installed after the floor tile, carpet and fixtures have been installed to insure a proper fit.
.08 Entrance Mats and/or Grilles
- Each entry vestibule shall have a rigid type grille set in a mat frame in the entrance. The grille shall be set in a floor recess with a drain and be set on vinyl support cushions. It shall be set at a proper height to affect cleaning and allow clearance for all doors to swing over same.
- Standard floor drains and tapers thereto should be located in all utility or mechanical rooms, storage areas and, if practical, loading docks.
.10 Loading Docks
- Each loading dock should have four (4) molded rubber heavy-duty bumpers and be equipped with load-leveling equipment.
.11 Ceiling Heights
- Ceiling heights are preferred to be 10 feet with 9' 6" being considered the minimum. The office area may be 8" lower, considering it basically to be the same elevation as the retail area.
- Standard manufacturers acoustical ceiling in 2' x 4' or 2' x 2' panels, suspended or mounted in a proper manner, per FS-SS-S-118 or Type E as ASTM-E.795.
- Panels should be of mineral composition with washable finish, fissured and perforated Pattern 8, such as Armstrong's World Minaboard "Tegular," Type A or B, lay-in; flame spread of 25 or less with a smoke developed of 50 or less; reflectance of at least 75%, such as White/LR-1, standard metal suspension as complies with ASTM-C635 requirements; in matching white.
- It is desirable that general lighting be from metal halide, 2 x 4, 3 lamp units with approximately a 4" x 6" honeycomb lens.
- Desired lumens would allow 65 foot candles at 32" off the floor throughout.
- Special effect lighting as coordinated with the basic store design might very well call for 100 to 300 watt wall-washer, spot or flood lights about the retail area. These requirements will be provided by the University as required for incorporation with the lighting plans.
- All general lighting should be located no closer than 36" from all perimeter walls within the retail area. This will allow for less conflict with possible wall fixture lighting following the design of the retail area.
- A 6' 0" pigtail in "Greenfield," or equal, will be called for upon completion of the store design. Requirements for these will be located at random about the perimeter of the retail area. The pigtail will come from a junction box located 88" on center off the floor. Each should be on a separate circuit, switch controlled from the main panel. (Fixture lighting will be within the prescribed circuitry load usually single fluorescent lamps.)
- Some ceiling lighting, or special units, may be used as night lights.
- Emergency lighting should be installed within its own system and circuitry.
- The main electrical concern will be the service that is required to each check-out and showcase as the store is designed.
- Chase or duct should be run in the floor slab whereby it feeds to each location where electrical computer, telephone and security lines may be run. Each chase (4) should be separate with a combination of Walker Duct #2 an #4, or equal. The ducts should run from their location to the panel; one running out of one of the ways to the computer in the office before the panel. Each outlet should be isolated on or in a separate circuit. Each floor outlet fitting should be in a flush type unit. Six (6) circuits should be planned for these.
- There will be standard outlets also required and a plan for same will be provided by the University as the facility is designed. Six (6) circuits should be planned for these.
- In the receiving area, wire mold with an outlet every two feet will be required; 42" off the floor, flush in the wall. The location and length of this run will be provided by the University as the facility is designed. Two (2) circuits should be planned for these.
.15 Vents, Intakes and Exhausts
- Generally, accommodations can be made in the wall fixturing for various vents.
- When possible, however, consideration for the primary function of the facility should be given credence and such locations should be coordinated in the design of the facility, as well as the building.
- Often such vents are better if located 7' 0" off the floor.
- Baseboard heating around the perimeter of the retail area should not be considered.
- Controls have to be located within the proper means of the operation, but not at the expense of the main function.
- Lighting controls
- Generally, lighting should be switch controlled at the entry of the facility.
- Additional controls should also be installed by rear entrances for the loading dock and in the receiving area.
- Lighting of the wall fixtures (pigtails) should be located at the panel box.
- Electrical power controls
- The switch controls for each floor outlet should be located at the panel box; and as well, those controlling the various outlets and other mechanical equipment.
- HVAC system controls
- Controls for the HVAC should be located in the manager's office; however, thermostats should be located about the areas they govern.
- Attempts should be made to locate the thermostats so as not to conflict with the wall fixturing of the retail area. Within furred columns is preferable.
- Electrical panel
- The main electrical panel should be located in the rear of the storage area, just off the retail area, for quick and easy access thereto.
- Fire alarms and extinguishers
- Alarms and extinguishers are most certainly essential.
- They should be located where the function of the retail area does not restrict their easy access or conflict with being able to find same.
- Suggestions for their locations will be provided by the University as the interior design is developed with the basic electrical requirements.
.17 Telephone and Computer Lines
- See Office of Telecommunications Minimum Wiring Standard.
.18 Paint and Colors
- Painting is required and all aspects as to the proper preparation, prefinishes and the general application should prevail.
- Basically, it is essential that all finishes match those existing at other bookstore facilities for the versatility of equipment and decor harmony throughout the Penn State system.
- Colors which must be matched are as follows:
- Blue: To match Dark Blue, #91M25 by Westinghouse Micarta
- White: To match Frosty White, #1573-6 by Wilson Art
- Oak: To match Golden Oak, #7888-3 by Wilson Art
- Black: To match Pearl Black, #92M16 by Westinghouse Micarta
- Any and all suggested equals must have the approval of the Penn State Store management prior to use.
- Full glass doors at store entrance.
- Handicap door hardware.
- Security - Motron Detectors Door Contacts - These need conduit installed.
- Electrical strip on each office wall and wall behind service counter.
- Duplex receptacles every 48" @ 42" above floor in stockroom.
- All receiving doors (outside/in) to be double or over head and from receiving to sales area minimum 42" opening.
- Employee restroom in any individual Bookstore building must be equipped for handicapped.
- Pitched roof with outside gutters preferred with conductors down to storm drain.
- Floor drain in receiving area.
- Outside water in individual Bookstore building.
- Janitor closet with floor drain, hot and cold water fixtures with hose connections.
- All Mechanical Room walls must extend to roof deck or slab for security.
- Display window with shadow box and locked doors.
- All door locks to be Medeco Brand.
- Panic Hardware on all exterior doors.
- Penn State Stores are designed to use Hermsdorf Fixtures Mfg. Co. of Manchester, NH
- A laboratory designed for the use of chemicals is suitable for most of the experiments at a university using radioactive material. Benchtops, shelving and sinks should have smooth impervious surfaces with a minimum of joints. Stainless steel is very suitable and may be required where chemicals are used that dissolve or react with organic coatings. Soapstone, wood, and other porous material should not be used. However, trays and absorbent paper are recommended when using any quantity of radioactive material making it possible to work with even these poor surfaces.
- Floors should also be impervious. Tile floors have joints that can collect contamination but have the advantage that contaminated sections can be easily removed and replaced. Epoxy finishes can also be provided that are smooth, impervious, long-wearing and repairable.
.03 Eating Area
- One item that is often overlooked is the need for an eating area separate from the laboratory. In radioisotope laboratories food storage, food preparation, and eating or drinking are prohibited. Therefore, refrigerators and sinks in laboratories may not be used for storage, refrigeration of food, or washing eating utensils. The eating area must be an area separate from the laboratory; either a separate room or a partition from the rest of the laboratory. If offices are to be used for eating areas, sinks should be provided for food preparation. The study cubicles used inside some laboratories do not meet the requirements for a separate eating area.
- Sink drains may be of any material compatible with the chemicals to be used. Sink traps should be readily removable for recovery of lost items and contamination checks. Glass plumbing should be protected against heavy objects, such as magnetic stirrers, that can fall through large distances in vertical pipes and break the glass pipe. Glass drain should also be protected from freezing and routed so that leakage goes into pipe chases and not through ceilings into laboratories and offices.
.05 Fume Hoods
- It is the general policy at the University that radioisotope experiments be designed so that a hood is not needed to meet the requirements for concentration of airborne radioactive material. Hoods serve only as a backup in case of unanticipated release of radioactive material. Therefore, well designed chemical hoods are suitable for most radioisotope work.
- Hoods should be designed for a face velocity of about 100 feet per minute. Some hoods with separate makeup air systems may not meet the face velocity requirement but still give satisfactory performance if the collection efficiency for airborne material released in the hood is equivalent to that of a 100 fpm face velocity.
- Hoods should be located away from doors, windows, heavy traffic areas and other sources of drafts that could cause backflow from the hood.
- Sufficient makeup air is to be provided to the hood or room to allow for proper air flow. Blowers should be located as close to the exhaust end of the ducting as practicable. Duct velocity should be as high as possible to reduce duct contamination without creating a noise problem or requiring excessive energy to operate at a high pressure drop.
- One exception to the above hood requirement is the design of hoods for radioiodination. Such hoods must meet the following additional requirements:
- A minimal linear face velocity of 100 fpm minimum.
- An activated carbon filter for radioiodine plus a prefilter to reduce dust loading of the activated carbon. The activated carbon filter should be designed for a minimum contact time of 0.25 second. Filters are to be of standard AEC design (24" x 24" cross-section, up to 12" deep) and interchangeable with HEPA filters.
- Stainless steel interior for ease of decontamination.
- A mercury-free manometer to indicate filter pressure drop mounted at the hood face.
- A low-flowrate alarm. A direct reading manometer with pressure switches such as the Dwyer Photohelic gauge can serve as the manometer and flow-rate alarm.
.06 Animal Rooms
- Rooms that meet the requirements for animal care can usually be used for in-vivo radioisotope experiments. The room should be large enough to accommodate extra waste containers and monitoring equipment during an experiment, typically about 25-50 square feet. If the experiment involves larger numbers of small animals or large animals it may be necessary to use anticontamination clothing and additional space for a change pad and clothing storage (50-100 square feet) is needed.
- Walls and floors of animal rooms should be easily cleaned. A bare room with tile or epoxy floor and walls is recommended.
- Furniture should be movable or easily washed in place.
- At least one large, deep-bowl sink, preferably of stainless steel should be provided.
- A hose bib with hot and cold mixing faucet is recommended for washing floor and walls.
- There should be sufficient walk in freezer space (20-40 square feet) available for extended storage of contaminated animal carcasses for radioactive decay. Laboratory space adjacent to the animal room is recommended for preparation of radiochemicals, and processing of samples. At least one table of sufficient size to handle the largest animal expected to be used should be provided for surgical procedures, implanting catheters, drawing blood samples, etc.
- Each radioisotope laboratory should have at least one cabinet that can be locked for storage of radioisotopes. If refrigerated storage of radiochemicals is required, a refrigerator or freezer with a lock is required.
- Specialized laboratories for the use of alpha-emitting radionuclides and high intensity gamma ray sources may require additional features such as a change area for work clothes, filtration of exhaust air and shielded storage space for radioisotopes.