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Division 21


21 00 01 Owner General Requirements and Design Intent

.01 General
  1. Provide fire protection systems unless exempted by the local code, and FM Global.  A fire standpipe protection for buildings during construction should be referenced to the requirements of the code, the fire department and FM Global.
  2. If requested by the University, an approved automatic fire-suppression system shall be provided where solvents and/or explosive materials are stored or used, and in kitchens over appliances which produce grease-laden vapors.
  3. Professional Note:  The University has established specific quality assurance requirements for installation of sprinkler systems protecting areas of 1,000 square feet or greater in new buildings and renovation projects.  Consult with the University Project Manager for the proper terminology to be incorporated in the project specifications.
.02 Design
  1. Design systems in accordance with the local code, the requirements of the local fire department, BOCA, applicable NFPA Standards and FM Global standards.
  2. For a few isolated sprinklers, use 100 square feet, ordinary hazard pipe schedule with sprinklers at least 50° above ambient temperature.  A fire department pumper connection is not required.  Water flow and valve tamper should be monitored.  Inspector's test is required at the end of the system, along with a drain close to the control valve.
.03 Submittals and Approvals
  1. All devices and equipment installed in the systems must be approved and listed by Underwriters Laboratories and Factory Mutual Research Corp., (FMRC).
  2. Early contact with FM Global by the Professional is suggested.
  3. Prior to final approvals by the University, the Professional shall submit plans and specifications to FM Global for their approval and submit these approvals to the University.
  4. Final Contractor's shop drawings and specifications shall be submitted to FM Global for their approval prior to submittal to the Professional for his approval.
.04 Hydrant Tests
  1. All projects involving street-pressure sprinkler systems, street-pressure fire standpipe systems or fire pumps require hydrant tests on the mains in all streets that could be used to feed the building.  Since these tests take time to get, they should be initiated as soon as possible at the start of a project.  Have a hydrant flow test made by the local water department, water company, or FM Global.  At University Park, flow data is available from the Utilities System Engineer.  Any flow data obtained from University utilities or local water departments should be confirmed with FM Global before being used for design basis.
.05 Utilities (Refer to Division 33 00 00)
.06 Mechanical Rooms
  1. Comply with Space Planning for Engineered Building System requirements in Introduction.
  2. Coordinate and comply with other applicable mechanical room requirements as described in 23 00 01.06.
.07 Janitor Rooms
  1. Janitor rooms are not accessible to maintenance employees.  Therefore, mechanical equipment, valves, electric panels, thermostats, etc. are not to be placed in these rooms.


  1. Coordinate and comply with all applicable general Operation and Maintenance requirements as described in 23 01 00, adapted to all Fire Suppression systems, equipment and controls.     


21 05 01 Fire Suppression General Requirements

.01 Painting
  1. See Division 09 90 00.
.02 Access Panels
  1. Access panels are required in each situation where items requiring maintenance are located above a concealed ceiling.
  2. Use screwdriver actuated locks.
  3. Access panel sizes shall be suitable for application.
  4. Access panel locations shall be indicated on contract drawings.
  5. Access panels are not required in lay-in ceilings, but identify appropriate tile with color button, cleated through, located on the adjacent ceiling grid.  Use color code of principal service.
.03 Motors and Drives
  1. Motors
    1. All motors over 1/2 hp shall be ball bearing unless otherwise noted.
    2. All ball bearing motors shall be equipped with lubricating type bearings, and provided with one (1) grease fitting per bearing and one (1) removable plug per bearing in the bottom of the grease sump to provide for flushing and pressure relief when lubricating.  Motors shall be permanently marked that bearings are lubricating type bearings.  Where motor grease fittings are not accessible, extend 1/8" steel or copper tubing from fitting to an accessible location.
    3. Motors 3/4 hp and larger to be three phase, 60 hertz.
    4. Motors smaller than 3/4 hp to be single phase, 60 hertz, 120V and shall have built in thermal protection.
    5. All motors above 1 hp shall be the low loss - high efficiency type.  Motors shall be tested in accordance with NEMA standard MG1 1.536 and name plate shall indicate the index letter.
    6. All 3-phase motors larger than 5 hp shall have power factor correction capacitors as recommended by the manufacturer.
    7. Motor inrush current must not create a voltage sag in excess of 3 percent without specific University approval.
    8. A voltage sag report shall be completed by the Professional on selected projects as determined by the University.  Report shall include backup calculations and expected building voltage sag when motor or motors in question are started.
    9. The University has experienced widespread premature motor shaft bearing failures due to fluting from electrical arcing on motors equipped with Variable Frequency Drives.  The Design Engineer must specify appropriate technologies and/or include provisions in the system design to prevent electrical fluting induced premature bearing failure from occurring.
  2. Drives
    1. All belt driven equipment shall include properly selected adjustable sheaves and matched V belts, all rated for 150% of motor horsepower.  Proper expanded metal guards should be provided for safety protection and to allow for proper ventilation for cool operation of belts.  Solid sheaves and band belts shall be used to minimize vibration in multiple V-belt driven equipment.
    2. Motor grease fittings shall be extended so belt guards do not need to be removed.
    3. All adjustable sheaves shall be replaced with suitable fixed sheaves prior to final acceptance by the University.
.04 Pressure Gages and Thermometers
  1. Gages for general use shall be "Quality" type as manufactured by Marsh Instrument Company or equal.  Gages shall have a 4 1/2 inch diameter dial.  In main mechanical room, Contractor shall provide 6" diameter gages for water and air.  Gages shall be calibrated for static head.  All gages shall be equipped with shutoff valves and snubbers.
  2. The scale on gages and thermometers shall be read to twice the operating pressure or temperature.  The Professional shall specify gage and thermometer ranges.
.05 Pipe Hangers and Supports
  1. Provide an adequate pipe suspension system in accordance with the current version of the International Mechanical Code, recognized engineering practices, using standard, commercially accepted pipe hangers and accessories.  The use of pipe hooks, chains, or perforated iron for pipe supports will not be accepted.
  2. Pipe suspension systems for fire suppression systems shall be designed and installed in conformance with applicable sections of NFPA.  See Division 21 00 10.01 – 21 00 10.04 for additional requirements.
  3. Contractor shall submit Data sheets for approval on all pipe hanger items prior to installation.
  4. All piping shall be arranged to maintain the required pitch and provided for proper expansion and contraction.
  5. No holes are to be drilled or burned in structural building steel for hanger rod supports.
  6. Vertical runs of pipe shall be supported with riser clamps made specifically for pipe or for tubing.
  7. Where concentrated loads of valves and fittings occur, closer spacing may be necessary.  Hangers must be installed not more than 12 inches from each change in direction of pipes.
  8. All hangers for piping shall be provided with a means of vertical adjustment.  If adjustment is not incorporated in the hangers, use turnbuckles.
  9. Provide piping suspension systems with vibration isolation capability as required.  For vibration isolation requirements of piping suspension systems, refer to Paragraph 15A.13.
  10. Copper clamps and hangers shall be used on copper piping.
.06 Sound and Vibration Control
  1. Coordinate and comply with all applicable requirements as described in section 23 05 01.04 Sound and Vibration Control.
.07 Mechanical Identification
  1. Coordinate and comply with all applicable requirements as described in section 23 05 01.05 Mechanical Identification.


.01 Insulation
  1. Typically fire suppression systems are not insulated.  For any exceptions that might be encountered, comply with insulation requirements defined in Division 23.


.01 Building Fire Alarm Panel
  1. The building fire alarm panel described in Division 28 shall receive the alarms from fire pumps (current failure and pump running), water-flow alarm devices, alarm valves, CO2 systems, Halon systems, tamper switches, and others as required for the project.



.01 Piping
  1. Piping shall be pitched and valves installed to facilitate complete drainage of the system.
  2. All piping run within the building shall be run concealed in the finished portions of building in pipe spaces, ceilings or furred chases and exposed only in mechanical rooms and where shown on the drawings.
  3. No pipe shall pass in front of or interfere with any openings, door or window.  Head room in front of openings and doors shall in no case be less than the top of the opening.
  4. Piping shall not pass exposed through electrical rooms or be erected over any switchboard or other electrical gear.
  5. Sleeves:
    1. All pipes passing through wall or floor construction shall be fitted with sleeves.  Each sleeve shall extend through its respective floor, wall or partition and shall be cut flush with each surface unless otherwise specified.  Sleeves shall be two pipe sizes larger than the pipe when un-insulated and of sufficient size to allow for the insulation without binding.  Floor sleeves in mechanical rooms shall extend 4 inches above finished floor, all other spaces minimum one inch above finished floor.
    2. Sleeves in bearing walls, masonry walls, masonry partitions, and floors shall be standard weight steel pipe finished with smooth edges.  For other than masonry partitions, through suspended ceilings and for concealed vertical piping, sleeves shall be No. 22 USG galvanized steel.
    3. Where pipes pass through waterproofed floor or walls, design of sleeves shall be such that waterproofing can be flashed into and around the sleeves.
    4. Sleeves through exterior walls below grade shall have the space between pipes and sleeves caulked watertight.
    5. Install one-piece chrome-plated escutcheon plates with set screw at sleeves for all pipes exposed in finished areas.
    6. The annular space between sleeves and pipe shall be filled with fiberglass insulation and caulked in non-fire rated situations.
    7. Where pipes pass through fire-rated floors, walls, or partitions, the use of a UL approved system for through penetrations is required.  The annular space around the pipes shall be packed with mineral wool or other noncombustible material and sealed at each exposed edge to maintain the rating of the system in accordance with the through penetration sealant manufacturer's recommendations.
  6. System and Equipment Drains:
    1. All piping shall be arranged to completely drain the system.  Drain locations shall be located at all system low points.
    2. Where sectionalizing valves are installed, a drain shall be installed on downstream side of valve to drain that section of the system.
    3. All system and equipment drains are to be piped to a floor drain.
.04 Automatic Source and Siamese Connections
  1. Water systems should be supplied from at least one automatic source and siamese connections.
  2. Verify siamese location and size requirements with the University Fire Protection Engineer and local fire department.
  3. Siamese connections are two-way 2 1/2" National Standard thread fire connection with individual clappers at University Park.
  4. Where street pressure is sufficient (as determined from hydrant flow test), use it as the automatic source for the system or the lowest zone.
  5. Where everyday static pressures in the system exceeds allowable limits, the system should be zoned to comply with the maximum pressures allowed by code and/or NFPA.
  6. Where street pressure is insufficient, the automatic source should be automatic fire pumps.
  7. If a fire pump is required, a jockey pump is also needed.  Cross connections (potable and nonpotable water supplies) should be avoided.
.05 Pressure-Reducing Valves
  1. At levels where a pressure of over 170 psi could occur during a fire, provide approved pressure-reducing valves (pilot-operated type) on the standpipe and/or sprinkler connections.
  2. Provide fixed orifice-type pressure reducers on 1 1/2" valves where required, and adjustable orifice-type on 2 1/2" valves where required.  The use of approved pressure-reducing hose valves on NFPA design systems increases the allowable zone height from 275 to 400 feet.
.06 Piping (Inside Building)
  1. Piping inside building shall conform to NFPA Standard 13 or 14.  If pressure is over 175, use extra heavy fittings.
  2. Piping subject to alternate wetting and drying, such as drain piping, test piping, siamese connections between siamese and check valve shall be galvanized, Schedule 40, and properly sloped to completely drain.
  3. Avoid running wet pipe systems in areas exposed to freezing.  If it is absolutely necessary to run piping in a freezing area, it should be on a dry pipe system or anti-freeze system.
  4. Dry pipe system shall use galvanized pipe, Schedule 40, properly sloped to completely drain.
  5. Wet pipe systems may be Schedule 10, black steel, except maintain Schedule 40 from water entrance main to backflow preventer.
.07 Valves
  1. Valves should be IBBM or cast steel as follows:
    1. Fire pump discharge check valves should be spring type when the lift to the top of the system is 35 feet or more.
    2. Control valves 6 inches and larger, except at fire pumps should be provided with bypass valves.


.01 Standpipe Systems
  1. Standpipe systems should be wet pipe systems.
  2. Provide control valves on all risers and branches with three or more hose outlets.
  3. Riser control valves shall be located with the approval of the University.
  4. Branch piping for hose valve shall be minimum 2 1/2" for maximum of 20 feet.
  5. Provide 2 1/2" hose valves with 1 1/2" threaded reducers with chained caps.
  6. Hose valves shall be located so that all floor areas are within 100 feet of hose using a 30-foot hose system.
  7. Provide water flow alarm devices and tamper switches.
  8. Installation shall comply with latest edition of NFPA 14 "Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems" and FM Global Data Sheet 4-4N.
.02 Combination Systems
  1. In combination systems, sprinkler connections may be taken from the fire standpipe risers.
  2. Standpipe work (plumbing) will terminate in a control valve with tamper switch for the sprinkler connection.
  3. For alterations (adding sprinklers) in existing buildings, insure the minimum acceptable water supply for the combined system.


.01 Sprinklers
  1. Sprinklers should be wet pipe systems except where project requirements dictate otherwise.
  2. Sprinkler work should include water-flow alarm devices and tamper switches.
  3. Provide tamper switches on control valves when required by code, by the underwriters, or the owner.
  4. Sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with NFPA 13 and FM Global Data Sheet 2-8N.  Sprinkler systems shall have:
    1. An automatic water supply of adequate pressure, capacity, and reliability.
    2. Definite maximum protection area per sprinkler and indicated on the drawings with a schedule of location, type, coverage and sprinkler size.
    3. Location of sprinklers coordinated with all other trades to provide clearances and obtain suitable sensitivity.  Close proximity to possible interferences shall be indicated on the drawings.
    4. Coordinate with architect's reflected ceiling plan.
  5. Either hydraulic calculations or pipe schedule tables shall be utilized for system design.  All calculations, flow data, and other design criteria shall be submitted for review.


.01 Fire Extinguishers (See Division 10 40 00.01)
.02 Other Fire-Extinguishing Systems
  1. The use of other types of fire-extinguishing systems shall be discussed with the University.
  2. Water Spray Fixed Systems shall conform to NFPA 15 and FM Global Data Sheets 4-1N.
  3. Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems shall conform to NFPA 17 and FM Global Data Sheets 4-10.
  4. Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems shall conform to NFPA 17A.


.01 Carbon Dioxide Fire-Extinguishing Systems


.01 Halon Fire-Extinguishing Systems
  1. Conform to NFPA 12A.
  2. Contact the University for required Halon system reserve, tests required, and FM Global approvals of design.  Tests shall be conducted during unoccupied periods.  Tests shall be witnessed by OPP, FM Global, and EH&S and be scheduled two weeks in advance.

21 30 00 FIRE PUMPS

.01 General Requirements
  1. Size fire pumps as required by the local code, the fire chief or fire marshal, or FM Global, whichever is greater.
    1. For motor-driven pumps, select 3,500 rpm rather than 1,750 rpm whenever a choice is available.
    2. Refer to NFPA Standard 20 for data on fire pumps.
  2. Fire-pump heads shall include the pressure required at the top of the system, total system height, system friction, and the minimum available suction pressure.
  3. When no emergency generators are being provided in the project, check with the underwriters if an engine drive is required for the fire pump.  The University prefers diesel engine drive.
  4. Provide fire pumps with a valved cross-connection between discharge and suction (inside the control valves) for testing.
    1. 3 inch for 500 gpm pump.
    2. 4 inch for 750 gpm and larger pump.
  5. Fire pump relief valves, when required, should be piped back into the suction.
  6. Check the local code NFPA Standard 20, and FM Global Data Sheets 3-7N for the fire pump room construction.